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United States
Securities and Exchange Commission
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
Commission file number 001-06351
Eli Lilly and Company
 
An
Indiana
corporation
 
I.R.S. employer identification no.
35-0470950
Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285 (317276-2000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
Title of Each Class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Common Stock (no par value)
LLY
New York Stock Exchange
1.000% Notes due 2022
LLY22
New York Stock Exchange
7 1/8% Notes due 2025
LLY25
New York Stock Exchange
1.625% Notes due 2026
LLY26
New York Stock Exchange
2.125% Notes due 2030
LLY30
New York Stock Exchange
0.625% Notes due 2031
LLY31
New York Stock Exchange
6.77% Notes due 2036
LLY36
New York Stock Exchange
1.700% Notes due 2049
LLY49A
New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
ý  
 
 
 
  
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
o
 
  
Smaller reporting company
 
  
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act):
Yes No þ
Aggregate market value of the common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (Common Stock): approximately $93,167,000,000.
Number of shares of common stock outstanding as of February 13, 2020: 956,382,203
Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement to be filed on or about March 20, 2020 have been incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None

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Eli Lilly and Company
Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019
Table of Contents
 
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include all statements that do not relate solely to historical or current facts, and can generally be identified by the use of words such as “may,” “believe,” “will,” “expect,” “project,” “estimate,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “continue,” or similar expressions.
In particular, information appearing under “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition” includes forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements inherently involve many risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in these statements. Where, in any forward-looking statement, we express an expectation or belief as to future results or events, it is based on management's current plans and expectations, expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis. However, we can give no assurance that any such expectation or belief will result or will be achieved or accomplished. The following include some but not all of the factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those anticipated:
uncertainties in the pharmaceutical research and development process, including with respect to the timing of anticipated regulatory approvals and launches of new products;
market uptake of recently launched products;
competitive developments affecting current products and our pipeline;
the expiration of intellectual property protection for certain of our products;
our ability to protect and enforce patents and other intellectual property;
the impact of actions of governmental and private payers affecting pricing of, reimbursement for, and access to pharmaceuticals;
regulatory compliance problems or government investigations;
regulatory actions regarding currently marketed products;
unexpected safety or efficacy concerns associated with our products;
issues with product supply stemming from manufacturing difficulties or disruptions;
regulatory changes or other developments;
changes in patent law or regulations related to data-package exclusivity;
litigation, investigations, or other similar proceedings involving past, current, or future products or commercial activities as we are largely self-insured;
unauthorized disclosure, misappropriation, or compromise of trade secrets or other confidential data stored in our information systems, networks, and facilities, or those of third parties with whom we share our data;
changes in tax law, including the impact of United States tax reform legislation enacted in December 2017 and related guidance, or events that differ from our assumptions related to tax positions;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, and inflation;
asset impairments and restructuring charges;
changes in accounting and reporting standards promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board and the Securities and Exchange Commission;
acquisitions and business development transactions and related integration costs;
information technology system inadequacies or operating failures;
reliance on third-party relationships and outsourcing arrangements; and
the impact of global macroeconomic conditions.
Investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. You should carefully read the factors described in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of certain risks that could, among other things, cause our actual results to differ from these forward-looking statements.

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All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report and are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements included in this report. Except as is required by law, we expressly disclaim any obligation to publicly release any revisions to forward-looking statements to reflect events after the date of this report.

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Part I
Item 1.
Business
Eli Lilly and Company (the “company” or “registrant” or "Lilly") was incorporated in 1901 in Indiana to succeed to the drug manufacturing business founded in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1876 by Colonel Eli Lilly. We discover, develop, manufacture, and market products in a single business segment—human pharmaceutical products.
Our purpose is to unite caring with discovery to create medicines that make life better for people around the world. Most of the products we sell today were discovered or developed by our own scientists, and our success depends to a great extent on our ability to continue to discover or acquire, develop, and bring to market innovative new medicines.
In September 2018 Elanco Animal Health Incorporated (Elanco), an animal health business previously wholly owned by the company, completed an initial public offering of its common stock, which trades on the New York Stock Exchange, and in March 2019, we completed the disposition of our remaining ownership of Elanco common stock. For more information on the exchange offer, see Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis - Results of Operations - Executive Overview”.
We manufacture and distribute our products through facilities in the United States (U.S.), Puerto Rico, and 8 other countries. Our products are sold in approximately 120 countries.
Products
Our products include:
Diabetes and other endocrinology products, including:
Baqsimi® (glucagon), a nasal powder formulation for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes (approved in the U.S. and Europe in 2019)
Basaglar® (insulin glargine injection), a long-acting human insulin analog for the treatment of diabetes (launched in Japan and Europe under the trade name Abasaglar)
Forteo®, for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men at high risk for fracture and for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women
Humalog®, Humalog Mix 75/25, Humalog U-100, Humalog U-200, Humalog Mix 50/50, and insulin lispro, insulin analogs for the treatment of diabetes
Humatrope®, for the treatment of human growth hormone deficiency and certain pediatric growth conditions
Humulin®, Humulin 70/30, Humulin N, Humulin R, and Humulin U-500, human insulins of recombinant DNA origin for the treatment of diabetes
Jardiance®, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death in adult patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease
Trajenta®, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Trulicity®, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Immunology products, including:
Olumiant®, for the treatment of adults with moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis (approved in Europe and Japan in 2017, and in the U.S. in 2018)
Taltz®, for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, active psoriatic arthritis (approved in the U.S. in 2017, and in Europe in 2018), and ankylosing spondylitis (approved in the U.S. in 2019)
Neuroscience products, including:
Cymbalta®, for the treatment of major depressive disorder, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain due to chronic low back pain or chronic pain due to osteoarthritis

5



Emgality®, a once-monthly subcutaneously injected calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antibody for migraine prevention (approved in the U.S. and Europe in 2018) and the treatment of episodic cluster headache (approved in the U.S. in 2019)
Reyvow, an oral medicine for the acute treatment of migraine (launched in the U.S. in 2020)
Strattera®, for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Zyprexa®, for the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mixed or manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, and bipolar maintenance
Oncology products, including:
Alimta®, for the first-line treatment, in combination with another agent, of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for patients with non-squamous cell histology; for the second-line treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC; as monotherapy for the maintenance treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC in patients whose disease has not progressed immediately following chemotherapy treatment; and in combination with another agent, for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma
Cyramza®, for use as a single agent or in combination with another agent as a second-line treatment of advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma; in combination with another agent as a second-line treatment of metastatic NSCLC; in combination with another agent as a second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer; as a single agent as a second-line treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (approved in the U.S. in 2019); and in combination with another agent as a first-line treatment of adult patients with metastatic NSCLC with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (approved in Europe in 2020)
Erbitux®, indicated both as a single agent and in combination with another chemotherapy agent for the treatment of certain types of colorectal cancers; and as a single agent, in combination with chemotherapy, or in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of certain types of head and neck cancers
Verzenio®, for use as a single agent and in combination with endocrine therapy for the treatment of a certain type of metastatic breast cancer (approved in the U.S. in 2017 and in Europe and Japan in 2018)
Other products, including:
Cialis®, for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia
Marketing
We sell most of our products worldwide. We adapt our marketing methods and product emphasis in various countries to meet local customer needs.
U.S.
In the U.S., most of our products are distributed through wholesalers that serve pharmacies, physicians and other health care professionals, and hospitals. In 2019, 2018, and 2017, three wholesale distributors in the U.S. - McKesson Corporation, AmerisourceBergen Corporation, and Cardinal Health, Inc. - each accounted for between 14 percent and 21 percent of our consolidated total revenue. No other distributor accounted for more than 10 percent of our consolidated total revenue in any of those years.
We promote our major products in the U.S. through sales representatives who call upon physicians and other health care professionals. We also promote to healthcare providers in medical journals and on-line health care channels, distribute literature and samples of certain products to physicians, and exhibit at medical meetings. In addition, we advertise certain products directly to consumers in the U.S., and we maintain websites with information about our major products. We supplement our employee sales force with contract sales organizations to leverage our own resources.
We maintain special business groups to service wholesalers, pharmacy benefit managers, managed care organizations, group purchasing organizations, government and long-term care institutions, hospitals, and certain retail pharmacies. We enter into arrangements with these organizations providing for discounts or rebates on our products.

6



Outside the U.S.
Outside the U.S., we promote our products to healthcare providers primarily through sales representatives and on-line health care channels. While the products marketed vary from country to country, diabetes and other endocrinology products constitute the largest single group in consolidated revenue. Distribution patterns vary from country to country. In most countries in which we operate, we maintain our own sales organizations, but in some smaller countries we market our products through independent distributors.
Marketing Collaborations
Certain of our products are marketed in arrangements with other pharmaceutical companies, including the following:
We and Boehringer Ingelheim have a global agreement to develop and commercialize a portfolio of diabetes products, including Trajenta, Jentadueto®, Jardiance, Glyxambi®, Synjardy®, Trijardy® XR, and Basaglar.
For additional information, see Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4, Collaborations and Other Arrangements."
Competition
Our products compete globally with products of many other companies in highly competitive markets.
Important competitive factors include effectiveness, safety, and ease of use; price and demonstrated cost-effectiveness; marketing effectiveness; and research and development of new products, processes, and uses. Most new products that we introduce must compete with other branded or generic products already on the market or products that are later developed by competitors. If competitors introduce new products or delivery systems with therapeutic or cost advantages, our products can be subject to decreased sales, progressive price reductions, or both.
We believe our long-term competitive success depends upon discovering and developing (either alone or in collaboration with others) or acquiring innovative, cost-effective products that provide improved outcomes and deliver value to payers, and continuously improving the productivity of our operations in a highly competitive environment. There can be no assurance that our efforts will result in commercially successful products, and it is possible that our products will be, or become, uncompetitive from time to time as a result of products developed by our competitors.
Generic Pharmaceuticals
One of the biggest competitive challenges we face is from generic pharmaceuticals. In the U.S. and Europe, the regulatory approval process for pharmaceuticals (other than biological products (biologics)) exempts generics from costly and time-consuming clinical trials to demonstrate their safety and efficacy, allowing generic manufacturers to rely on the safety and efficacy of the innovator product. Therefore, generic manufacturers generally invest far less than we do in research and development and can price their products much lower than our branded products. Accordingly, when a branded non-biologic pharmaceutical loses its market exclusivity, it normally faces intense price competition from generic forms of the product. Public and private payers typically encourage the use of generics as alternatives to brand-name drugs in their healthcare programs. Laws in the U.S. generally allow, and in many cases require, pharmacists to substitute generic drugs that have been rated under government procedures to be essentially equivalent to a brand-name drug. Where substitution is mandatory, it must be made unless the prescribing physician expressly forbids it. In many countries outside the U.S., intellectual property protection is weak, and we must compete with generic or counterfeit versions of our products.
Biosimilars
Several of our current products, including Cyramza, Emgality, Erbitux, Taltz, and Trulicity and many of the new molecular entities (NMEs) in our research pipeline are biologics. Competition for Lilly’s biologics may be affected by the approval of follow-on biologics, also known as biosimilars. A biosimilar is a subsequent version of an approved innovator biologic that, due to its functional and structural similarity to the innovator biologic, is approved based on an abbreviated data package that relies in part on the full testing required of the innovator biologic. Globally, most governments have developed regulatory pathways to approve biosimilars as alternatives to innovator-developed biologics, but the patent and regulatory exclusivity for the existing innovator biologic must expire in a given market before biosimilars may enter that market. The extent to which a biosimilar, once approved, will be substituted for the innovator biologic in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for

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non-biologic products, is not yet entirely clear, and will depend on a number of regulatory and marketplace factors that are still developing.
Biosimilars may present both competitive challenges and opportunities. For example, a competitor company has developed a version of insulin lispro which competes with our product Humalog. On the other hand, with our partner Boehringer Ingelheim, we developed Basaglar, a new insulin glargine product, which has the same amino acid sequence as a product currently marketed by a competitor and has launched as a follow-on biologic in the U.S., and as a biosimilar in Europe and Japan. In March 2020, the U.S. regulatory status of all of our insulin products will transition to become regulated as “biologics” rather than “drugs.” Based on recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance, this change may lower the requirements for competitor biosimilar products to enter the market, some of which could be designated as interchangeable and therefore substituted for our insulin products at U.S. pharmacies.
U.S. Private Sector Dynamics
In the U.S. private sector, consolidation and integration among healthcare providers is also a major factor in the competitive marketplace for pharmaceuticals. Health plans and pharmacy benefit managers have been consolidating into fewer, larger entities, thus enhancing their purchasing strength and importance. For example, in 2018 CVS Health, a large pharmacy benefit manager and pharmacy chain, acquired Aetna, a large national insurer, and Cigna Corporation acquired Express Scripts in a similar transaction. More recently, in December 2019, Express Scripts signed a three-year partnership agreement with another pharmacy benefit manager, Prime Therapeutics.
Payers typically maintain formularies which specify coverage (the conditions under which drugs are included on a plan's formulary) and reimbursement (the associated out-of-pocket cost to the consumer). Formulary placement can lead to reduced usage of a drug for the relevant patient population due to coverage restrictions, such as prior authorizations and formulary exclusions, or due to reimbursement limitations which result in higher consumer out-of-pocket cost, such as non-preferred co-pay tiers, increased co-insurance levels, and higher deductibles. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies compete for formulary placement not only on the basis of product attributes such as efficacy, safety profile, or patient ease of use, but also by providing rebates. Value-based agreements, where pricing is based on achievement, or not, of specified outcomes, are another tool which may be utilized between payers and pharmaceutical companies as formulary placement and pricing are negotiated. Price is an increasingly important factor in formulary decisions, particularly in treatment areas in which the payer has taken the position that multiple branded products are therapeutically comparable. These downward pricing pressures are expected to continue to negatively affect our future consolidated results of operations.
Patents, Trademarks, and Other Intellectual Property Rights
Overview
Intellectual property protection is critical to our ability to successfully commercialize our life sciences innovations and invest in the search for new medicines. We own, have applied for, or are licensed under, a large number of patents in the U.S. and many other countries relating to products, product uses, formulations, and manufacturing processes. In addition, as discussed below, for some products we have effective intellectual property protection in the form of data protection under pharmaceutical regulatory laws.
The patent protection anticipated to be of most relevance to pharmaceuticals is provided by national patents claiming the active ingredient (the compound patent), particularly those in major markets such as the U.S., various European countries, and Japan. These patents may be issued based upon the filing of international patent applications, usually filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). Patent applications covering compounds are generally filed during the Discovery Phase of the drug discovery process, which is described in the “Research and Development” section below. In general, national patents in each relevant country are available for a period of 20 years from the filing date of the PCT application, which is often years prior to the launch of a commercial product. Further patent term adjustments and restorations may extend the original patent term:
Patent term adjustment is a statutory right available to all U.S. patent applicants to provide relief in the event that a patent grant is delayed during examination by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
Patent term restoration is a statutory right provided to U.S. patent holders that claim inventions subject to review by the FDA. To make up for a portion of the time invested in clinical trials and the FDA review

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process, a single patent for a pharmaceutical product may be eligible for patent term restoration. Patent term restoration is limited by a formula and cannot be calculated until product approval due to uncertainty about the duration of clinical trials and the time it takes the FDA to review an application. There is a five-year cap on any restoration, and no patent's expiration date may be extended beyond 14 years from FDA approval. Some countries outside the U.S. also offer forms of patent term restoration. For example, Supplementary Protection Certificates are available to extend the life of a European patent up to an additional five years (subject to a 15-year cap from European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval). Similarly, in Japan, South Korea, and Australia, patent terms can be extended up to five years, depending on the length of regulatory review and other factors.
Loss of effective patent protection for pharmaceuticals, especially for non-biologic products, typically results in the loss of effective market exclusivity for the product, which often results in severe and rapid decline in revenues for the product. However, in some cases the innovator company may be protected from approval of generic, biosimilar, or other follow-on versions of a new medicine beyond the expiration of the compound patent through manufacturing trade secrets, later-expiring patents on manufacturing processes, methods of use or formulations, or data protection that may be available under pharmaceutical regulatory laws. Changes to the laws and regulations governing these protections could result in earlier loss of effective market exclusivity. The primary forms of data protection are as follows:
Regulatory authorities in major markets generally grant data package protection for a period of years following new drug approvals in recognition of the substantial investment required to complete clinical trials. Data package protection prohibits other manufacturers from submitting regulatory applications for marketing approval based on the innovator company’s regulatory submission data for the drug. The base period of data package protection depends on the country. For example, the period is generally five years in the U.S. (12 years for new biologics as described below), effectively 10 years in Europe, and eight years in Japan. The period begins on the date of product approval and runs concurrently with the patent term for any relevant patent.
Under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (the BPCI Act), the FDA has the authority to approve biosimilars. A competitor seeking approval of a biosimilar must file an application to show its molecule is highly similar to an approved innovator biologic and include a certain amount of safety and efficacy data that the FDA will consider on a case-by-case basis. Under the data protection provisions of this law, the FDA cannot approve a biosimilar application until 12 years after initial marketing approval of the innovator biologic, subject to certain conditions. The BPCI Act is part of the Affordable Care Act, the constitutionality of which is currently being litigated.
In the U.S., the FDA has the authority to grant additional data protection for approved drugs where the sponsor conducts specified testing in pediatric or adolescent populations within a specified time period. If granted, this “pediatric exclusivity” provides an additional six months of exclusivity, which is added to the term of data protection as well as to the term of any relevant patents, to the extent these protections have not already expired. While the term of the pediatric exclusivity attaches to the term of any relevant patent, pediatric exclusivity is a regulatory exclusivity, a bar to generic approval, not a patent right.
Under the U.S. orphan drug law, a specific use of a drug or biologic can receive "orphan" designation if it is intended to treat a disease or condition affecting fewer than 200,000 people in the U.S., or affecting more than 200,000 people but not reasonably expected to recover its development and marketing costs through U.S. sales. Among other benefits, orphan designation entitles the particular use of the drug to seven years of market exclusivity, meaning that the FDA cannot (with limited exceptions) approve another marketing application for the same drug for the same indication until expiration of the seven-year period. Unlike pediatric exclusivity, the orphan exclusivity period is independent of and runs in parallel with any applicable patents.
Outside the major markets, the adequacy and effectiveness of intellectual property protection for pharmaceuticals varies widely, and in a number of these markets we are unable to patent our products or to enforce the patents we receive for our products. Under the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Agreement (TRIPs) administered by the World Trade Organization, more than 140 countries have agreed to provide non-discriminatory protection for most pharmaceutical inventions and to assure that adequate and effective rights are available to patent owners. Certain developing countries limit protection for biopharmaceutical products under their interpretation of “flexibilities” allowed under the agreement. Thus, some types of patents, such as those on new uses of compounds or new forms of molecules, are not available in certain developing countries. Further, many developing countries, and some developed countries, do not provide effective data package protection even though it is specified in TRIPs.

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Our Intellectual Property Portfolio
We consider intellectual property protection for certain products, processes, uses, and formulations—particularly with respect to those products discussed below—to be important to our operations. In addition to the data protection and patents identified below, we may hold patents on manufacturing processes, formulations, devices, or uses that extend exclusivity beyond the dates shown below.
The most relevant U.S. patent protection or data protection and associated expiry dates for our top-selling or recently launched patent-protected marketed products are as follows:
Alimta is protected by a vitamin regimen patent (2021) plus pediatric exclusivity (May 2022).
Baqsimi is protected by data protection (July 2022).
Cyramza is protected by a compound patent and biologics data protection (2026).
Emgality is protected by a compound patent (2033).
Jardiance, and the related combination products Glyxambi and Synjardy, are protected by a compound patent (2025, not including possible patent extension).
Olumiant is protected by a compound patent (2030, not including possible patent extension).
Reyvow is protected by a compound patent (2025, not including possible patent extension).
Taltz is protected by a compound patent (2026, not including possible patent extension) and by biologics data protection (2028).
Trajenta and Jentadueto are protected by a compound patent (2023, not including possible patent extension).
Trulicity is protected by a compound patent (2027).
Verzenio is protected by a compound patent (2029, not including possible patent extension).
Outside the U.S., important patent protection or data protection includes:
Alimta is protected by a vitamin regimen patent in major European countries (June 2021) and by patents covering use to treat cancer concomitantly with vitamins in Japan (June 2021).
Cyramza is protected by a compound patent in major European countries (2028) and Japan (2026).
Emgality in is protected by a compound patent in major European countries (2033) and Japan (2031, not including possible patent extension).
Olumiant is protected by a compound patent in major European countries (2029, not including possible patent extension) and Japan (2033).
Taltz is protected by a compound patent in major European countries (2031) and Japan (2030).
Trulicity is protected by a compound in major European countries and Japan (2029).
Verzenio is protected by a compound in major European countries and Japan (2029).
Baqsimi has been submitted for regulatory review in Japan, where it is expected to be protected by data protection upon approval (6 years).
Flortaucipir has been submitted for regulatory review in the U.S. for use as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent and is protected by a compound patent (2029, not including possible patent extension).
Selpercatinib has been submitted for regulatory review in the U.S. for the treatment of cancers in certain patients and is protected by a U.S. compound patent (2037, not including possible patent extension).
Tanezumab has been submitted for regulatory review in the U.S. for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain and is expected to be protected by data protection upon approval (12 years).
Worldwide, we sell all of our major products under trademarks for names and unique product appearance (e.g., the appearance of our Trulicity autoinjector) which we consider in the aggregate to be important to our operations. Trademark protection varies throughout the world, with protection continuing in some countries as long as the mark is used, and in other countries as long as it is registered. Registrations are normally for fixed but renewable terms. Trademark protection often extends beyond the patent and data protection for a product.

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Patent Licenses
Most of our major products are not subject to significant license agreements. For information on our license and collaboration agreement with Incyte Corporation related to Olumiant, see Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4, Collaborations."
Patent Challenges
In the U.S., the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, commonly known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, authorizes the FDA to approve generic versions of innovative pharmaceuticals (other than biologics) when the generic manufacturer has not conducted safety and efficacy studies but files an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA). In an ANDA, the generic manufacturer must demonstrate only “bioequivalence” between the generic version and the New Drug Application (NDA)-approved drug—not safety and efficacy. Establishing bioequivalence is generally straightforward and inexpensive for the generic company.
Absent a patent challenge, the FDA cannot approve an ANDA until after certain of the innovator’s patents expire. However, after the innovator has marketed its product for four years, a generic manufacturer may file an ANDA alleging that one or more or all of the patents listed in the innovator’s NDA are invalid or not infringed. This allegation is commonly known as a “Paragraph IV certification.” If the innovator responds by filing suit against the generic manufacturer, the FDA is then prohibited from approving the generic company’s application for a 30-month period (which can be shortened or extended by the trial court judge hearing the patent challenge). If one or more of the NDA-listed patents are challenged, the first filer(s) of a Paragraph IV certification may be entitled to a 180-day period of market exclusivity over all other generic manufacturers.
Generic manufacturers use Paragraph IV certifications extensively to challenge patents on innovative pharmaceuticals. In addition, generic companies have shown willingness to launch “at risk,” i.e., after receiving ANDA approval but before final resolution of their patent challenge. We are currently in Hatch-Waxman litigation involving Alimta with five generic manufacturers. For more information on Hatch-Waxman litigation involving the company, see Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16, Contingencies” and Item 3, "Legal Proceedings."
Under the BPCI Act, the FDA cannot approve a biosimilar application until data protection expires, 12 years after initial marketing approval of the innovator biologic. However, the BPCI Act does provide a mechanism for a competitor to challenge the validity of an innovator’s patents as early as four years after initial marketing approval of the innovator biologic. The patent litigation scheme under the BPCI Act is complex and courts have held that biosimilar applicants are not required to engage in it. Patent holders still have the right to bring suit under normal patent law procedures if a biosimilar applicant attempts to commercialize a product prior to patent expiration.
In addition, there is a procedure in U.S. patent law known as inter partes review (IPR), which allows any member of the public to file a petition with the USPTO seeking the review of any issued U.S. patent for validity. IPRs are conducted before Administrative Patent Judges in the USPTO using a lower standard of proof than used in federal district court. In addition, the challenged patents are not accorded the presumption of validity as they are in federal district court. Generic drug companies and even some investment firms have engaged in the IPR process in attempts to invalidate our patents.
Outside the U.S., the legal doctrines and processes by which pharmaceutical patents can be challenged vary widely. In recent years, we have experienced an increase in patent challenges from generic manufacturers in many countries outside the U.S. For more information on administrative challenges and litigation involving our Alimta patents in Europe and Japan, see Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16, Contingencies.”
Government Regulation of Our Operations
Our operations are regulated extensively by numerous national, state, and local agencies. The lengthy process of laboratory and clinical testing, data analysis, manufacturing development, and regulatory review necessary for governmental approvals is extremely costly and can significantly delay product introductions. Promotion, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution of pharmaceutical products are extensively regulated in all major markets. We conduct extensive post-marketing surveillance of the safety of the products we sell. In addition, our operations are subject to complex federal, state, local, and foreign laws and regulations concerning the environment, occupational health and safety, and privacy. Compliance with the laws and regulations affecting the manufacture and sale of current products and the discovery, development, and introduction of new products will continue to require substantial effort, expense, and capital investment.

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Of particular importance to our business is the FDA in the U.S. Pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the FDA has jurisdiction over all of our products and devices in the U.S. and administers requirements covering the testing, safety, effectiveness, manufacturing, quality control, distribution, labeling, marketing, advertising, dissemination of information, and post-marketing surveillance of those products.
The FDA extensively regulates all aspects of manufacturing quality for pharmaceuticals under its current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) regulations. Outside the U.S., our products and operations are subject to similar regulatory requirements, notably by the EMA in Europe and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan. Specific regulatory requirements vary from country to country. We make substantial investments of capital and operating expenses to implement comprehensive, company-wide quality systems in our manufacturing, product development, and process development operations in an effort to ensure sustained compliance with cGMP and similar regulations. However, in the event we fail to adhere to these requirements in the future, we could be subject to interruptions in production, fines and penalties, and delays in new product approvals. Certain of our products are manufactured by third parties, and their failure to comply with these regulations could adversely affect us through failure to supply product to us or delays in new product approvals.
The marketing, promotional, and pricing practices of pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as the manner in which manufacturers interact with purchasers, prescribers, and patients, are subject to various other U.S. federal and state laws, including the federal anti-kickback statute and the False Claims Act and state laws governing kickbacks, false claims, unfair trade practices, and consumer protection. These laws are administered by, among others, the Department of Justice (DOJ), the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Federal Trade Commission, the Office of Personnel Management, and state attorneys general. Over the past several years, state and federal governments have increased their oversight, enforcement activities, and intra-agency coordination with respect to pharmaceutical companies. Several claims brought by these agencies against us and other companies under these and other laws have resulted in corporate criminal sanctions and very substantial civil settlements.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA) prohibits certain individuals and entities, including U.S. publicly traded companies, from promising, offering, or giving anything of value to foreign officials with the corrupt intent of influencing the foreign official for the purpose of helping the company obtain or retain business or gain any improper advantage. The FCPA also imposes specific recordkeeping and internal controls requirements on U.S. publicly traded companies. As noted above, outside the U.S., our business is heavily regulated and therefore involves significant interaction with foreign officials. Additionally, in many countries outside the U.S., the health care providers who prescribe pharmaceuticals are employed by the government and the purchasers of pharmaceuticals are government entities; therefore, our interactions with these prescribers and purchasers are subject to regulation under the FCPA.
In addition to the U.S. application and enforcement of the FCPA, the various jurisdictions in which we operate and supply our products have laws and regulations aimed at preventing and penalizing corrupt and anticompetitive behavior. In recent years, several jurisdictions, including China, Brazil, and the United Kingdom (U.K.), have enhanced their laws and regulations in this area, increased their enforcement activities, and/or increased the level of cross-border coordination and information sharing.
We are and could in the future become subject to administrative and legal proceedings and actions, which could include claims for civil penalties (including treble damages under the False Claims Act), criminal sanctions, and administrative remedies, including exclusion from U.S. federal and other health care programs. It is possible that an adverse outcome in future actions could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated results of operations, liquidity, and financial position.
Regulations and Private Payer Actions Affecting Pharmaceutical Pricing, Reimbursement, and Access
In the U.S., we are required to provide rebates to the federal government and respective state governments on their purchases of our pharmaceuticals under state Medicaid and Medicaid Managed Care programs (minimum of 23.1 percent plus adjustments for price increases over time) and rebates to private payers who cover patients in certain types of health care facilities that serve low-income and uninsured patients (known as 340B facilities). No rebates are required at this time in the Medicare Part B (physician and hospital outpatient) program where reimbursement is set on an "average selling price plus 4.3 percent" formula. Additionally, an annual fee is imposed on pharmaceutical manufacturers and importers that sell branded prescription drugs to specified government programs. Since 2019, the Bipartisan Budget Act has required manufacturers of brand-name drugs, biologics, and biosimilars to provide a discount of 70 percent of the cost of branded prescription drugs for Medicare Part D participants who are in the “doughnut hole” (the coverage gap in Medicare prescription drug coverage), up from the previous 50-percent discount.

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Rebates are also negotiated in the private sector. We give rebates to private payers who provide prescription drug benefits to seniors covered by Medicare and to private payers who provide prescription drug benefits to their customers. These rebates are affected by the introduction of competitive products and generics in the same class.
In 2019, the White House signed into law targeted amendments to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program statute, as well as the Fair and Accurate Medicaid Pricing Act, which was part of the Continuing Appropriations Act. We do not believe either will have a material impact to our business. Several states have passed importation legislation, including Colorado, Florida, Maine, and Vermont. Specifically, the state of Florida is working with the Administration to implement an importation program from Canada as early as 2020. We are currently reviewing the state legislation, as well as corresponding proposed federal rulemaking and guidance recently published by the Department of Health and Human Services and the FDA, the impact of which is uncertain at this time.
In most international markets, we operate in an environment of government-mandated cost-containment programs, which may include price controls, international reference pricing (to other countries’ prices), discounts and rebates, therapeutic reference pricing (to other, often generic, pharmaceutical choices), restrictions on physician prescription levels, and mandatory generic substitution.
Globally, public and private payers are increasingly restricting access to pharmaceuticals based on assessments of comparative effectiveness and value, including through the establishment of formal health technology assessment processes. In addition, third party organizations, including professional associations, academic institutions, and non-profit entities associated with payers, are conducting and publishing comparative effectiveness and cost/benefit analyses on medicines, the impact of which are uncertain at this time.
We cannot predict the extent to which our business may be affected by these or other potential future legislative, regulatory, or payer developments. However, in general we expect that state, federal, and international legislative and regulatory developments could have further negative effects on pricing and reimbursement for our products.
Research and Development
Our commitment to research and development dates back more than 140 years. We invest heavily in research and development because we believe it is critical to our long-term competitiveness. At the end of 2019, we employed approximately 7,810 people in pharmaceutical research and development activities, including a substantial number of physicians, scientists holding graduate or postgraduate degrees, and highly skilled technical personnel.
Our internal pharmaceutical research focuses primarily on the areas of oncology, diabetes, neurodegeneration, immunology, and pain. We believe that we have a strong biotechnology research program, with more than half of our clinical-stage pipeline currently consisting of biologics. In addition to discovering and developing NMEs, we seek to expand the value of existing products through new uses, formulations, and therapeutic approaches that provide additional value to patients.
To supplement our internal efforts, we collaborate with others, including academic institutions and research-based pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. We use the services of physicians, hospitals, medical schools, and other research organizations worldwide to conduct clinical trials to establish the safety and effectiveness of our pharmaceutical products. We actively invest in external research and technologies that we believe complement and strengthen our own efforts. These investments can take many forms, including licensing arrangements, co-development and co-marketing agreements, co-promotion arrangements, joint ventures, and acquisitions.

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Pharmaceutical development is time-consuming, expensive, and risky. On average, only one out of many thousands of molecules discovered by researchers ultimately becomes an approved medicine. The process from discovery to regulatory approval can take over a decade. Drug candidates can fail at any stage of the process, and even late-stage drug candidates sometimes fail to receive regulatory approval or achieve commercial success. The rate of innovation cycles leading to medical improvements over initial inventions is accelerating, which has increased the risk that we opt not to develop a late-stage asset or that new products fail to achieve commercial success due to technical obsolescence - displacement by follow-on competitor products - before the period of exclusivity has ended. After approval and launch of a product, we expend considerable resources on post-marketing surveillance and additional clinical studies to collect data and understand the benefits and potential risks of medicines as they are used as therapeutics. Consistent with their purpose, these studies have the potential to identify information about problems with product safety or efficacy that result in product withdrawal. The following describes in more detail the research and development process for pharmaceutical products:
Phases of New Drug Development
Discovery Phase
The earliest phase of new drug research and development, the discovery phase, can take many years. Scientists identify, design, and synthesize promising molecules, screening tens of thousands of molecules for their effect on biological targets that appear to play an important role in one or more diseases. Targets can be part of the body, such as a protein, receptor, or gene; or foreign, such as a virus or bacteria. Some targets have been proven to affect disease processes, but often the target is unproven and may later prove to be irrelevant to the disease or to yield insufficient clinical benefit. Molecules that have the desired effect on the target and meet other design criteria become candidate molecules and move to the next phase of development. The probability of any one candidate molecule becoming a commercial product is extremely low.
Early Development Phase
The early development phase involves refining candidate molecules, understanding how to manufacture them efficiently, and completing initial testing for safety and efficacy. Safety testing is done first in laboratory tests and animals, as necessary, to identify toxicity and other potential safety issues that would preclude use in humans. In general, the first human tests (often referred to as Phase I) are conducted in small groups of healthy volunteers or patients to assess safety and find the potential dosing range. After a safe dose range has been established, the drug is typically administered to small populations of patients (Phase II) to look for initial signs of efficacy in treating the targeted disease, or biomarkers of the disease, and to continue to assess safety. In parallel, scientists work to identify safe, effective, and economical manufacturing processes. Long-term animal studies continue to test for potential safety issues. Of the molecules that enter the early development phase, approximately 10 percent move on to the product phase. The early development phase can take several years to complete.
Product Phase
Product phase (Phase III) molecules have met initial safety requirements and, typically, shown initial evidence of efficacy. As a result, these molecules generally have a higher likelihood of success. The molecules are tested in much larger patient populations to demonstrate efficacy to a predetermined level of statistical significance and to continue to develop the safety profile. These trials are generally global in nature and are designed to generate the data necessary to submit the molecule to regulatory agencies for marketing approval. The potential new drug is generally compared with existing competitive therapies, placebo, or both. The resulting data is compiled and may be submitted to regulatory agencies around the world. Phase III testing varies by disease state, but can often last from three to four years.
Submission Phase
Once a molecule is submitted to regulatory agencies, the time to final marketing approval can vary from several months to several years, depending on variables such as the disease state, the strength and complexity of the data presented, the novelty of the target or compound, and the time required for the agency(ies) to evaluate the submission. There is no guarantee that a potential medicine will receive marketing approval, or that decisions on marketing approvals or indications will be consistent across geographic areas.

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We believe our investments in research, both internally and in collaboration with others, have been rewarded by the large number of new molecules and new indications for existing molecules that we have in all stages of development. We currently have approximately 45 drug candidates across all stages of human testing and a larger number of projects in preclinical development. Among our new investigational molecules currently in the product phase of development or awaiting regulatory approval or launch are potential therapies for various cancers; Alzheimer’s disease; pain; migraine; cluster headache; diabetes; obesity; and autoimmune diseases, including alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. We are studying many other drug candidates in the earlier stages of development in our chosen priority areas. We are also developing new uses, formulations, or delivery methods for many of these molecules as well as several currently marketed products. See Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis - Results of Operations - Executive Overview - Late-Stage Pipeline," for more information on certain of our product candidates.
Raw Materials and Product Supply
Most of the principal materials we use in our manufacturing operations are available from more than one source. However, we obtain certain raw or intermediate materials primarily from only one source. We generally seek to maintain sufficient inventory to supply the market until an alternative source of supply could be implemented, in the event one of these suppliers was unable to provide the materials or product. However, in the event of an extended failure of a supplier, it is possible that we could experience an interruption in supply until we established new sources or, in some cases, implemented alternative processes.
The majority of our revenue comes from products produced in our own facilities. Our principal active ingredient manufacturing occurs at sites we own in the U.S., Ireland, and Puerto Rico. Finishing operations, including formulation, filling, assembling, delivery device manufacturing, and packaging, take place at a number of sites throughout the world. We utilize third parties for certain active ingredient manufacturing and finishing operations.
We manage our supply chain (including our own facilities, contracted arrangements, and inventory) in a way that is intended to allow us to meet all expected product demand while maintaining flexibility to reallocate manufacturing capacity to improve efficiency and respond to changes in supply and demand. To maintain a stable supply of our products, we use a variety of techniques including comprehensive quality systems, inventory management, and back-up sites.
However, pharmaceutical production processes are complex, highly regulated, and vary widely from product to product. Shifting or adding manufacturing capacity can be a very lengthy process requiring significant capital expenditures, process modifications, and regulatory approvals. Accordingly, if we were to experience unplanned plant shutdowns at one of our own facilities, significant failure of a contract supplier, or significant unanticipated increases in demand, we could experience an interruption in supply of certain products or product shortages until production could be resumed or expanded.
Quality Assurance
Our success depends in great measure upon customer confidence in the quality of our products and in the integrity of the data that support their safety and effectiveness. Product quality arises from a total commitment to quality in all parts of our operations, including research and development, purchasing, facilities planning, manufacturing, distribution, and dissemination of information about our medicines.
Quality of production processes involves strict control of ingredients, equipment, facilities, manufacturing methods, packaging materials, and labeling. We perform tests at various stages of production processes and on the final product in an effort to assure that the product meets all regulatory requirements and Lilly internal standards. These tests may involve chemical and physical chemical analyses, microbiological testing, testing in animals, or a combination thereof. Additional assurance of quality is provided by corporate quality-assurance groups that audit and monitor all aspects of quality related to pharmaceutical manufacturing procedures and systems in company operations and at third-party suppliers.
Executive Officers of the Company
The following table sets forth certain information regarding our executive officers. Except as otherwise noted, all executive officers have been employed by the company in management or executive positions during the last five years.
The term of office for each executive officer expires on the date of the annual meeting of the Board of Directors, to be held on May 4, 2020 in connection with the company's annual shareholders meeting, or on the date his or

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her successor is chosen and qualified. No director or executive officer has a “family relationship” with any other director or executive officer of the company, as that term is defined for purposes of this disclosure requirement. There is no understanding between any executive officer or director and any other person pursuant to which the executive officer was selected.
Name
Age
Offices and Business Experience
David A. Ricks
52
President, Chief Executive Officer, director (since January 2017) and board chair (since June 2017)
Melissa S. Barnes
51
Senior Vice President, Enterprise Risk Management and Chief Ethics and Compliance Officer (since January 2013)
Stephen F. Fry
54
Senior Vice President, Human Resources and Diversity (since February 2011)
Anat Hakim
50
Senior Vice President and General Counsel (since February 2020). Prior to joining Lilly Ms. Hakim was Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Wellcare Health Plans, a managed care company. Prior to joining Wellcare, she served as Divisional Vice President and Associate General Counsel at Abbott Laboratories, a health care company.
Patrik Jonsson
53
Senior Vice President and President, Lilly Bio-Medicines (since September 2019)
Michael B. Mason
53
Senior Vice President and President, Lilly Diabetes (since January 2020)
Johna L. Norton
53
Senior Vice President, Global Quality (since April 2017)
Myles O'Neill
61
Senior Vice President and President, Manufacturing Operations (since January 2018)
Leigh Ann Pusey
57
Senior Vice President, Corporate Affairs and Communications (since June 2017). Prior to joining Lilly, Ms. Pusey served as president and CEO of the American Insurance Association.
Aarti Shah, Ph.D.
55
Senior Vice President and Chief Information and Digital Officer (since January 2018)
Daniel Skovronsky, M.D., Ph.D.
46
Senior Vice President, Chief Scientific Officer, and President, Lilly Research Laboratories (since June 2018)
Joshua L. Smiley
50
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (since January 2018)
Anne E. White
51
Senior Vice President and President, Lilly Oncology (since September 2018)
Alfonso Zulueta
57
Senior Vice President and President, Lilly International (since January 2014)
Employees
At the end of 2019, we employed approximately 33,625 people, including approximately 18,915 employees outside the U.S. A substantial number of our employees have long records of continuous service.
Information Available on Our Website
Our company website is https://www.lilly.com. None of the information accessible on or through our website is incorporated into this Form 10-K. We make available through the website, free of charge, our company filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. These include our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, registration statements, and any amendments to those documents. The company website link to our SEC filings is https://investor.lilly.com/financial-information/sec-filings.
In addition, the Corporate Governance portion of our website includes our corporate governance guidelines, board and committee information (including committee charters), and our articles of incorporation and bylaws. The link to our corporate governance information is https://www.lilly.com/about/corporate-governance/Pages/corporate-governance.aspx.
We will provide paper copies of our SEC filings free of charge upon request to the company’s secretary at the address listed on the front of this Form 10-K.

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Item 1A.
Risk Factors
In addition to the other information contained in this Form 10-K, the following risk factors should be considered carefully in evaluating our company. It is possible that our business, financial condition, liquidity, cash flows, or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. Certain of these risks could also adversely affect the company's reputation.
Pharmaceutical research and development is very costly and highly uncertain; we may not succeed in developing or acquiring commercially successful products sufficient in number or value to replace revenues of products that have lost or will soon lose intellectual property protection or are displaced by competing products or therapies. 
There are many difficulties and uncertainties inherent in pharmaceutical research and development and the introduction of new products. There is a high rate of failure inherent in new drug discovery and development. To bring a drug from the discovery phase to market can take over a decade and often costs in excess of $2 billion. Failure can occur at any point in the process, including in later stages after substantial investment. As a result, most funds invested in research programs will not generate financial returns. New product candidates that appear promising in development may fail to reach the market or may have only limited commercial success because of efficacy or safety concerns, inability to obtain or maintain necessary regulatory approvals or payer reimbursement or coverage, limited scope of approved uses, changes in the relevant treatment standards or the availability of new or better competitive products, difficulty or excessive costs to manufacture, or infringement of the patents or intellectual property rights of others. Regulatory agencies continue to establish increasingly high hurdles for the efficacy and safety of new products. Delays and uncertainties in drug approval processes can result in delays in product launches and lost market opportunity. In addition, it can be very difficult to predict revenue growth rates of new products.
We cannot state with certainty when or whether our products now under development will be approved or launched; whether, if initially granted, such approval will be maintained; whether we will be able to develop, license, or otherwise acquire additional product candidates or products; or whether our products, once launched, will be commercially successful. We must maintain a continuous flow of successful new products and successful new indications or brand extensions for existing products sufficient both to cover our substantial research and development costs and to replace revenues that are lost as profitable products lose intellectual property exclusivity or are displaced by competing products or therapies. Failure to do so in the short-term or long-term would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial position. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis - Results of Operations - Executive Overview - Late-Stage Pipeline,” for more details.
We depend on products with intellectual property protection for most of our revenues, cash flows, and earnings; we have lost or will lose effective intellectual property protection for many of those products in the next several years, which has resulted and is likely to continue to result in rapid and severe declines in revenues.
A number of our top-selling products have recently lost, or will lose in the next several years, significant patent protection and/or data protection in the U.S. as well as key countries outside the U.S., as illustrated in the tables below:
Product
U.S. Revenues
(2019)
($ in millions)
Percent of Worldwide Revenues
(2019)
Patent / Data Protection - U.S.
Alimta
$
1,219.5

5%
Vitamin regimen patent plus pediatric exclusivity will expire in May 2022
Forteo
645.5

3%
Formulation and related process patents expired in December 2018 and use patents expired in August 2019

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Product
Revenues Outside U.S.
(2019)
($ in millions)
Percent of Worldwide Revenues
(2019)
Patent / Data Protection - Major Europe / Japan
Alimta
$
896.4

4%
Major European countries: vitamin regimen patent will expire in June 2021
Japan: use patents to treat cancer concomitantly with vitamins will expire in June 2021
Forteo
759.1

3%
Japan: data package protection expired in July 2018; formulation and use patents expired in August 2019
Cymbalta
675.8

3%
Japan: data package protection expired in January 2020
Certain other significant products no longer have effective exclusivity through patent protection or data protection. For non-biologic products, loss of exclusivity (whether by expiration of legal rights or by termination thereof as a consequence of litigation) typically results in the entry of one or more generic competitors, leading to a rapid and severe decline in revenues, especially in the U.S. Historically, outside the U.S. the market penetration of generics following loss of exclusivity has not been as rapid or pervasive as in the U.S.; however, generic market penetration is increasing in many markets outside the U.S., including Japan, Europe, and many countries in the emerging markets. For biologics (such as Humalog, Humulin, Erbitux, Cyramza, Trulicity, Taltz, and Emgality), loss of exclusivity may or may not result in the near-term entry of competitor versions (i.e., biosimilars) due to many factors including development timelines, manufacturing challenges, and/or uncertainties in the regulatory pathways for approval of the competitor versions.
There is no assurance that the patents we are seeking will be granted or that the patents we hold will be found valid and enforceable if challenged. Moreover, patents relating to particular products, uses, formulations, or processes do not preclude other manufacturers from employing alternative processes or marketing alternative products or formulations that compete with our patented products. In addition, competitors or other third parties may assert claims that our activities infringe patents or other intellectual property rights held by them, or allege a third-party right of ownership in our existing intellectual property. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis - Results of Operations - Executive Overview - Other Matters - Patent Matters,” and Item 1, "Business - Patents, Trademarks, and Other Intellectual Property Rights," for more details.
Our long-term success depends on intellectual property protection; if our intellectual property rights are invalidated, circumvented, or weakened, our business will be adversely affected.
Our long-term success depends on our ability to continually discover or acquire, develop, and commercialize innovative new pharmaceutical products. Without strong intellectual property protection, we would be unable to generate the returns necessary to support the enormous investments in research and development and capital as well as other expenditures required to bring new drugs to the market.
Intellectual property protection varies throughout the world and is subject to change over time, depending on local laws and regulations. Changes to such laws and regulations could reduce protections for our innovative products. In the U.S., in addition to the process for challenging patents set forth in the BPCI Act, which applies to our biologic products, the Hatch-Waxman Act provides generic companies powerful incentives to seek to invalidate our other pharmaceutical patents. As a result, we expect that our U.S. patents on major pharmaceutical products will continue to be routinely challenged in litigation and may not be upheld. In addition, a separate IPR process allows competitors to request review of issued patents by the USPTO without the protections of the Hatch-Waxman Act. Our patents may be invalidated via this review process. Although such a decision can be appealed to the courts, in certain circumstances a loss in such a proceeding could result in a competitor entering the market, while a win provides no precedential value - the same patent can still be challenged by other competitors. We face many generic manufacturer challenges to our patents outside the U.S. as well. The entry of generic competitors typically results in rapid and severe declines in revenues. In addition, competitors or other third parties may claim that our activities infringe patents or other intellectual property rights held by them. If successful, such claims could result in our being unable to market a product in a particular territory or being required to pay significant damages for past infringement or royalties on future sales. See Item 1, “Business - Patents, Trademarks, and Other Intellectual Property Rights,” Item 3, "Legal Proceedings," and Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16, Contingencies," for more details.

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Our business is subject to increasing government price controls and other public and private restrictions on pricing, reimbursement, and access for our drugs, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation or business. 
Public and private payers are taking increasingly aggressive steps to control their expenditures for pharmaceuticals by placing restrictions on pricing and reimbursement for, and patient access to, our medications. These pressures could continue to negatively affect our future revenues and net income.
We expect pricing, reimbursement, and access pressures from both governments and private payers inside and outside the U.S. to become more severe. For more details, see Item 1, “Business - Regulations and Private Payer Actions Affecting Pharmaceutical Pricing, Reimbursement, and Access,” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis - Results of Operations - Executive Overview - Other Matters - Trends Affecting Pharmaceutical Pricing, Reimbursement, and Access.”
We face intense competition from multinational pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, and lower-cost generic and biosimilar manufacturers, and such competition could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We compete with a large number of multinational pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, and generic pharmaceutical companies. To compete successfully, we must continue to deliver to the market innovative, cost-effective products that meet important medical needs. Our product revenues can be adversely affected by the introduction by competitors of branded products that are perceived as superior by the marketplace, by generic or biosimilar versions of our branded products, and by generic or biosimilar versions of other products in the same therapeutic class as our branded products. Regulation of generic and biosimilar products varies around the world. Particularly for biosimilars, changes to such regulations could make it easier, less expensive, and less time consuming for competitor products to enter the market, some of which could be substituted for our products at the pharmacy. Our revenues can also be adversely affected by treatment innovations that eliminate or minimize the need for treatment with our drugs. See Item 1, “Business - Competition” and "Business - Research and Development," for more details.
Changes in foreign currency rates or devaluation of a foreign currency can materially affect our revenue, cost of sales, and operating expenses.
As a global company with substantial operations outside the U.S., we face foreign currency risk exposure from fluctuating currency exchange rates. While we seek to manage a portion of these exposures through hedging and other risk management techniques, significant fluctuations in currency rates can have a material impact, either positive or negative, on our revenue, cost of sales, and operating expenses. In the event of an extreme devaluation of local currency, the price of our products could become unsustainable in the relevant market. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis - Financial Condition” for more details.
Unanticipated changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities could increase our income taxes and decrease our net income. 
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions, and in the course of our business, we make judgments about the expected tax treatment of various transactions and events, including the separation of Elanco. Changes in the relevant tax laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles, and interpretations, as well as events that differ from our expectations, could adversely affect our future effective tax rates. The U.S. enacted tax reform legislation significantly revising the U.S. tax law, effective January 2018, and a number of other countries are actively considering or enacting tax changes. Modifications to key elements of the U.S. or international tax framework could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated operating results and cash flows. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis - Results of Operations - Executive Overview - Other Matters - Tax Matters” and Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 14, Income Taxes," for more details. Lilly has taken the position on the separation from Elanco, based on an opinion of tax counsel, that the divestiture of Elanco common stock qualifies as a transaction that is tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If any facts, assumptions, representations, and undertakings from Lilly and Elanco regarding the past and future conduct of their respective businesses and other matters are incorrect or not otherwise satisfied, the divestiture may not qualify for tax-free treatment, which could result in significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities for both Lilly and its shareholders who exchanged their stock for Elanco stock.


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Failure, inadequacy, or breach of our information technology systems, infrastructure, and business information or violations of data protection laws could result in material harm to our business and reputation.
A great deal of confidential information owned by both us and our business partners is stored in our information systems, networks, and facilities or those of third parties. This includes valuable trade secrets and intellectual property, clinical trial information, corporate strategic plans, marketing plans, customer information, and personally identifiable information, such as employee and patient information (collectively, “confidential information”). We also rely to a large extent on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex information technology systems, infrastructure, and hardware (together “IT systems”), some of which are within the company’s control and some of which are within the control of third parties, to accumulate, process, store, and transmit large amounts of confidential information and other data. We are subject to a variety of continuously evolving and developing laws and regulations around the world related to privacy, data protection, and data security. Maintaining the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our IT systems and confidential information is vital to our business.
IT systems are vulnerable to system inadequacies, operating failures, service interruptions or failures, security breaches, malicious intrusions, or cyber-attacks from a variety of sources. Cyber-attacks are growing in their frequency, sophistication, and intensity, and are becoming increasingly difficult to detect, mitigate, or prevent. Cyber-attacks come in many forms, including the deployment of harmful malware, exploitation of vulnerabilities, denial-of-service attacks, the use of social engineering, and other means to compromise the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our IT systems, confidential information, and other data. Breaches resulting in the compromise, disruption, degradation, manipulation, loss, theft, destruction, or unauthorized disclosure or use of confidential information, or the unauthorized access to, disruption of, or interference with our products and services, can occur in a variety of ways, including but not limited to, negligent or wrongful conduct by employees or others with permitted access to our systems and information, or wrongful conduct by hackers, competitors, certain governments, or other current or former company personnel. Our third party partners face similar risks.
The failure or inadequacy of our IT systems, the compromise, disruption, degradation, manipulation, loss, theft, destruction, or unauthorized disclosure or use of confidential information, or the unauthorized access to, disruption of, or interference with our products and services that rely on IT systems, could impair our ability to secure and maintain intellectual property rights; result in a product manufacturing interruption or failure, or in the interruption or failure of products or services that rely on IT systems; damage our operations, customer relationships, or reputation; and cause us to lose trade secrets or other competitive advantages. Unauthorized disclosure of personally identifiable information could expose us to significant sanctions for violations of data privacy laws and regulations around the world and could damage public trust in our company.
To date, system inadequacies, operating failures, unauthorized access, service interruptions or failures, security breaches, malicious intrusions, cyber-attacks, and the compromise, disruption, degradation, manipulation, loss, theft, destruction, or unauthorized disclosure or use of confidential information have not had a material impact on our consolidated results of operations. We maintain cyber liability insurance; however, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover the financial, legal, business, or reputational losses that may result from an interruption or breach of our IT systems. We continue to implement measures in an effort to protect, detect, respond to, and minimize or prevent these risks and to enhance the resiliency of our IT systems; however, these measures may not be successful. If they are not successful, any of these events could result in material financial, legal, business, or reputational harm to our business.

20



Significant economic downturns or international trade disruptions or disputes could adversely affect our business and operating results. 
While pharmaceuticals have not generally been sensitive to overall economic cycles, prolonged economic slowdowns could lead to decreased utilization of our products, affecting our sales volume. Declining tax revenues attributable to economic downturns increase the pressure on governments to reduce health care spending, leading to increasing government efforts to control drug prices and utilization. Additionally, some customers, including governments or other entities reliant upon government funding, may be unable to pay in a timely manner for our products. Also, if our customers, suppliers, or collaboration partners experience financial difficulties, we could experience slower customer collections, greater bad debt expense, and performance defaults by suppliers or collaboration partners. Similarly, in the event of a significant economic downturn, we could have difficulty accessing credit markets.
Significant portions of our business are conducted in Europe, including the U.K.; Asia; and other international geographies. Trade disputes and interruptions in international relationships, including pandemic diseases, such as the coronavirus, could result in changes to regulations governing our products and our intellectual property, or otherwise affect our ability to do business. While we do not expect either circumstance to materially affect our business in a direct manner, these and similar events could adversely affect us, or our business partners or customers. 
Pharmaceutical products can develop unexpected safety or efficacy concerns, which could have a material adverse effect on revenues, income, and reputation. 
Pharmaceutical products receive regulatory approval based on data obtained in controlled clinical trials of limited duration. After approval, the products are used for longer periods of time by much larger numbers of patients; we and others (including regulatory agencies and private payers) collect extensive information on the efficacy and safety of our marketed products by continuously monitoring the use of our products in the marketplace. In addition, we or others may conduct post-marketing clinical studies on efficacy and safety of our marketed products. New safety or efficacy data from both market surveillance and post-marketing clinical studies may result in product label changes or other measures that could reduce the product's market acceptance and result in declining sales. Serious safety or efficacy issues that arise after product approval could result in voluntary or mandatory product recalls or withdrawals from the market. Safety issues could also result in costly product liability claims.
We face litigation and investigations related to our products and our pricing practices and are self-insured; we could face large numbers of claims in the future, which could adversely affect our business.
We are subject to a substantial number of product liability claims involving Actos®, Axiron®, Byetta®, Cialis, and Cymbalta among other products, as well as litigation and investigations related to the pricing of our products. See Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16, Contingencies,” and Item 3, “Legal Proceedings,” for more information on our current product liability litigation, as well as pricing litigation, investigations, and inquiries. Because of the nature of pharmaceutical products, we are and could in the future become subject to large numbers of product liability claims for these or other products, or to further litigation or investigations into pricing or other commercial practices. Such matters require substantial expenditures to resolve and, if involving marketed products, could adversely affect sales of the product. Due to a very restrictive market for liability insurance, we are self-insured for product liability losses for all our currently marketed products, as well as for litigation or investigations related to our pricing practices or other similar matters.

21



Regulatory compliance problems could be damaging to the company.
The marketing, promotional, and pricing practices of pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as the manner in which manufacturers interact with purchasers, prescribers, and patients, are subject to extensive regulation. Many companies, including us, have been subject to claims related to these practices asserted by federal, state, and foreign governmental authorities, private payers, and consumers. These claims have resulted in substantial expense and other significant consequences to us. We are and could in the future become subject to such investigations, the outcomes of which could include criminal charges and fines, penalties, or other monetary or non-monetary remedies, including exclusion from U.S. federal and other health care programs. In addition, regulatory issues concerning compliance with cGMP regulations (and comparable foreign regulations) for our products can lead to product recalls and seizures, fines and penalties, interruption of production leading to product shortages, and delays in the approvals of new products pending resolution of the issues. See Item 1, “Business - Government Regulation of Our Operations,” for more details.
Manufacturing difficulties or disruptions could lead to product supply problems. 
Pharmaceutical manufacturing is complex and highly regulated. Manufacturing difficulties at our facilities or contracted facilities, or the failure or refusal of a contract manufacturer to supply contracted quantities, could result in product shortages, leading to lost revenue. Such difficulties or disruptions could result from quality or regulatory compliance problems; natural disasters or pandemic disease; mechanical or information technology system vulnerabilities, such as system inadequacies, operating failures, service interruptions or failures, security breaches, malicious intrusions, or cyber-attacks from a variety of sources; or inability to obtain sole-source raw or intermediate materials. In addition, given the difficulties in predicting sales of new products and the very long lead times necessary for the expansion and regulatory qualification of pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity, it is possible that we could have difficulty meeting unanticipated demand for new products. See Item 1, “Business - Raw Materials and Product Supply,” for more details.
Reliance on third-party relationships and outsourcing arrangements could adversely affect our business.
We rely on third parties, including suppliers, distributors, alliances with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, and third-party service providers, for selected aspects of product development, manufacture, commercialization, support for information technology systems, product distribution, and certain financial transactional processes. For example, we outsource the day-to-day management and oversight of our clinical trials to contract research organizations. Outsourcing these functions involves the risk that the third parties may not perform to our standards or legal requirements; may not produce reliable results; may not perform in a timely manner; may not maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our confidential and proprietary information; may experience disruption or fail to perform due to information technology system vulnerabilities, breaches, or cyber-attacks; or may fail to perform at all. Failure of these third parties to meet their contractual, regulatory, confidentiality, privacy, security, or other obligations to us could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

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Item 2.
Properties
Our principal domestic and international executive offices are located in Indianapolis. At December 31, 2019, we owned 9 production and distribution sites in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Together with the corporate administrative offices, these facilities contain an aggregate of approximately 8.2 million square feet of floor area dedicated to production, distribution, and administration. Major production sites include Indianapolis, Indiana; Carolina, Puerto Rico; and Branchburg, New Jersey.
We own production and distribution sites in 8 countries outside the U.S. and Puerto Rico, containing an aggregate of approximately 4.4 million square feet of floor area. Major production sites include facilities in Ireland, France, Spain, Italy, and China.
In the U.S., our research and development facilities contain an aggregate of approximately 4.2 million square feet of floor area, primarily consisting of owned facilities located in Indianapolis. We also lease smaller sites in San Diego, California and New York City, New York. Outside the U.S., we own smaller research and development facilities in the U.K. and Spain, and lease smaller sites in Singapore.
We believe that none of our properties is subject to any encumbrance, easement, or other restriction that would detract materially from its value or impair its use in the operation of the business. The buildings we own are of varying ages and in good condition.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
We are a party to various currently pending legal actions, government investigations, and environmental proceedings, and we anticipate that such actions could be brought against us in the future. The most significant of these matters are described below or, as noted, in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16, Contingencies." While it is not possible to determine the outcome of the legal actions, investigations, and proceedings brought against us, we believe that, except as otherwise specifically noted in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16, Contingencies," the resolution of all such matters will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or liquidity, but could be material to our consolidated results of operations in any one reporting period.
Legal Proceedings Described in Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements
See Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16, Contingencies," for information on various legal proceedings, including but not limited to:
The patent litigation and administrative proceedings involving Alimta, Jardiance, Taltz, and Emgality;
The product liability litigation involving Cymbalta;
The litigation related to the Cosmopolis facility in Brazil; and
Pricing litigation, investigations, and inquiries.
That information is incorporated into this Item by reference.
Other Product Liability Litigation
We are named along with Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd. and Takeda affiliates (collectively, Takeda) as a defendant in four purported product liability class actions in Canada related to Actos, which we commercialized with Takeda in Canada until 2009, including one in Ontario (Casseres et al. v. Takeda Pharmaceutical North America, Inc., et al.), one in Quebec (Whyte et al. v. Eli Lilly et al.), one in Saskatchewan (Weiler v. Takeda Canada Inc. et al.), and one in Alberta (Epp v. Takeda Canada Inc. et al.). In general, plaintiffs in these actions alleged that Actos caused or contributed to their bladder cancer. We believe these lawsuits are without merit, and we and Takeda are defending against them vigorously.
We are named as a defendant in approximately 565 Byetta product liability lawsuits in the U.S. involving approximately 815 plaintiffs. Approximately 60 of these lawsuits, covering about 305 plaintiffs, are filed in California state court and coordinated in a Los Angeles Superior Court. Approximately 500 of the lawsuits, covering about 510 plaintiffs, are filed in federal court, the majority of which are coordinated in a multi-district litigation (MDL) in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California. Three lawsuits, representing approximately four plaintiffs, have also been filed in various state courts. Approximately 555 of the lawsuits,

23



involving approximately 790 plaintiffs, contain allegations that Byetta caused or contributed to the plaintiffs' cancer (primarily pancreatic cancer or thyroid cancer); most others allege Byetta caused or contributed to pancreatitis. In addition, two suits involving approximately nine plaintiffs allege that Byetta caused or contributed to renal injuries and one case alleges that Byetta caused or contributed to ampullary cancer. The federal and state trial courts granted summary judgment in favor of us and our co-defendants on the claims alleging pancreatic cancer. The plaintiffs appealed those rulings. In November 2017, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed the U.S. District Court’s grant of summary judgment based on that court's discovery rulings and remanded the cases for further proceedings. In November 2018, the California Court of Appeal reversed the state court’s grant of summary judgment based on that court’s discovery rulings and remanded for further proceedings. We are aware of approximately 20 additional claimants who have not yet filed suit. These additional claims allege damages for pancreatic cancer or thyroid cancer. We believe these lawsuits are without merit and are defending against them vigorously.
We are named as a defendant in approximately 50 Axiron personal injury/product liability lawsuits in the U.S. involving approximately 50 plaintiffs. In some of the cases, other manufacturers of testosterone are named as co-defendants. All of these lawsuits have been consolidated in a federal MDL in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois. The cases generally allege cardiovascular and related injuries. We have reached agreement on a settlement framework that provides for a comprehensive resolution of all of these personal injury claims alleging cardiovascular and related injuries from Axiron treatment. We have also been engaged in litigation with Medical Mutual of Ohio (MMO), which filed a class action complaint against multiple manufacturers of testosterone products, including Lilly, in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, on behalf of third-party payers who paid for those products and is seeking damages under the Federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. MMO's motion for class certification was denied, and in February 2019, the District Court granted summary judgment in favor of defendants, dismissing MMO's lawsuit with prejudice. In November 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit affirmed the District Court’s ruling, concluding this case.
We are named as a defendant in approximately 350 Cialis product liability lawsuits in the U.S. These cases, many of which were originally filed in various federal courts, contain allegations that Cialis caused or contributed to the plaintiffs' cancer (melanoma). In December 2016, the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (JPML) granted the plaintiffs' petition to have filed cases and an unspecified number of future cases coordinated into a federal MDL in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, alongside an existing coordinated proceeding involving Viagra®. The JPML ordered the transfer of the existing cases to the now-renamed multidistrict litigation In re: Viagra (Sildenafil Citrate) and Cialis (Tadalafil) Products Liability Litigation. We believe these lawsuits are without merit and are defending against them vigorously.
Other Patent Litigation
In Canada, several generic companies previously challenged the validity of our Zyprexa compound patent. In 2012, the Canadian Federal Court of Appeals denied appeal of the lower court's decision that certain patent claims were invalid for lack of utility. In 2013, our petition for leave to appeal the decision to the Supreme Court of Canada was denied. Apotex Inc. and Apotex Pharmachem Inc. (collectively, Apotex) pursued claims for damages arising from our enforcement of the patent under Canadian regulations. Apotex’s claims seek compensation based on novel legal theories under the Statute of Monopolies, Trade-Mark Act, and common law. We believe these claims are without merit and are defending against them vigorously. Trial is scheduled to begin in April 2021.
Other Matters
We are named as a defendant in litigation filed by Research Corporation Technologies, Inc. (RCT) in the U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona. RCT is seeking damages for breach of contract, unjust enrichment, and conversion related to processes used to manufacture certain products, including Humalog and Humulin. A trial date has not been set. We believe this lawsuit is without merit and are defending against it vigorously.
We are named as a defendant in a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas seeking damages under the federal anti-kickback statute and state and federal false claims acts for certain patient support programs related to our products Humalog, Humulin, and Forteo. In September 2019, the U.S. District Court granted the DOJ's motion to dismiss the relator’s second amended complaint. In January 2020, the relator appealed the District Court’s dismissal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. We believe this lawsuit is without merit and are defending against it vigorously.

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The competition authority in China has investigated our distributor pricing practices in China in connection with a broader inquiry into pharmaceutical industry pricing. We have cooperated with this investigation.
We, along with another pharmaceutical manufacturer, are named as co-defendants in United States et al. ex rel. Streck v. Takeda Pharm. Am., Inc., et al., which was unsealed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois. The complaint alleges that the defendants should have treated certain credits from distributors as retroactive price increases and included such increases in calculating Average Manufacturer Prices. We believe these claims are without merit and are defending against them vigorously.
Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, commonly known as "Superfund," we have been designated as one of several potentially responsible parties with respect to the cleanup of fewer than 10 sites. Under Superfund, each responsible party may be jointly and severally liable for the entire amount of the cleanup.
We are also a defendant in other litigation and investigations, including product liability, patent, employment, and premises liability litigation, of a character we regard as normal to our business.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

25



Part II
Item 5.
Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
You can find information relating to the principal market for our common stock and related stockholder matters at Item 6, "Selected Financial Data (unaudited)", Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition", and Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 20, Selected Quarterly Data (unaudited).” That information is incorporated here by reference.
The following table summarizes the activity related to repurchases of our equity securities during the fourth quarter ended December 31, 2019:
Period
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
(in thousands)
Average Price Paid
per Share
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
(in thousands)
Approximate Dollar Value
of Shares that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
(dollars in millions)
October 2019
2,079

$
114.10

2,079

$
1,562.8

November 2019
318

114.80

318

1,526.2

December 2019
225

116.65

225

1,500.0